1.1 GeneralThese rules have been compiled for the game scenario "Absence of Plague", which is a Machiavelli variant for 13 players. Nearest equivalent to these rules is to be found in the Advanced Level as described in the '80 and '83 editions. All randomness is excluded, for example the natural disasters. On the other hand, there are some additions: Forced Taxation, operating independent units etc. Certain rules have also been modified, in a more or less subtle way. Non-standard features are emphasized.
It is assumed that each player knows one Machiavelli variant or another. Thus, the common, general elements of all versions are mentioned only briefly if at all, which clears the room around the really salient points.
The original rules should not be blamed for any shortcomings or errors in this compilation.
1.2 MapboardExamples of cities:
1.3 Unit CountersExamples:
Armies, fleets and garrisons are called military units. Each inland province may be occupied by one army unit. Each coastal province may be occupied by one army or one fleet unit. Each sea area may be occupied by one fleet unit. In addition to that, each fortified city may be occupied by one garrison unit, and a province may also contain one rebellion unit, even in addition to an army or a fleet unit. A province or sea area, which contains no military units, is called unoccupied.
Control markers are used to point out who controls the province, if the province and a city within are unoccupied, or against whom the rebellion is directed, if the province and a city within are unoccupied and in rebellion.
Due to its small size, the island of Venice may be occupied by only one unit at a time - a fleet, army, garrison or rebellion unit. Also the islands of Lipari, Pantelleria and Lampedusa may be occupied by only either a fleet or a rebellion unit at a time. The island of Malta is an ordinary province with a garrisoned port city. There are some additional rules for the island of Venice, see Chapter 14.
There is no fixed upper limit for the number of military units of each major power in this variant.
2 Sequence of PlayThe game is played in "Campaigns", each Campaign representing the passage of a season during the year: a Spring, Summer or Fall Campaign. There is no Winter Campaign; armies - as they then were - passed the cold season in winter quarters. Each Campaign season is divided into Phases, which must be carried out exactly in the following order. Phase A is carried out only during Spring Campaigns, other phases are carried out during all Campaigns.
A. Military Unit Adjustment and Income PhaseOnly in Spring Campaigns.
A.1 Independent Garrison Build-Up PhaseIndependent garrisons may spring up, as described in Chapter 16.
A.2 Income Collection PhaseThe judge calculates the fixed and trade income for the players and updates their treasuries. The judge also publishes these incomes, the current game map and the anticipated treasuries of the players, that is, treasuries which are updated by public information only.
A.3 Spring Negotiation PhasePlayers may negotiate with each other.
A.4 Ducat exchange phasePlayers may give ducats to each other. The terms of these transactions are privately agreed upon.
A.5 Province Trading PhasePlayers may trade unoccupied provinces, which are controlled by the sellers. The control of a sold province changes as if the buyer had conquered it. If it has been part of a home country, it joins in again, if that home country is controlled by the buyer. See Chapter 6.
A.6 Forced Taxation PhasePlayers may collect extra tax from selected provinces. See Chapter 5.3.
A.7 Military unit payment phasePlayers may raise new military units. A salary must also be paid for each old unit; otherwise it is disbanded and removed from the game. The judge gathers the payments from the treasuries. Independent units maintain themselves automatically.
An excommunication order (see Chapter 15) may also be given in this phase.
Each player secretly writes down the actions in phases A.4 - A.7 and announces them to the judge by the deadline. The judge carries out these phases in order, each phase simultaneously for all players - that is, first all ducat exchanges etc. A player may not ask from the judge, has (s)he received ducats from other players. The judge tells this in phase B, not earlier. The player may not send alternative lists of actions to the judge, based on different amounts of ducats (s)he will possibly receive. However, read on:
If the player announces to expend more ducats than there is in her/his treasury, the judge carries out the actions in the announced order, up to the limit of the treasury. This may happen especially if some transactions of ducats do not take place in phase A.4.
B Negotiation PhaseThe judge publishes the game situation - map & descriptions of actions - and privately informs each player about their treasuries.
Players may negotiate with each other.
C Order Writing PhaseEach player secretly writes the proposed orders for each of their military units and ducat expenditures, to be sent to the judge by deadline. All expenditure orders are written first, then the operation orders. They are however posted to the judge in one letter.
C.1 Expenditure Writing PhasePlayers write their expenditure orders for transferring ducats to other players, attempting assassinations, hiring bodyguards, raising & pacifying rebellions, and bribing & counter-bribing. The sequence in which these are carried out is fixed, see Phase D.
C.2 Operation Writing PhasePlayers write their orders for military units, also for those military units which players think they succeed in bribing into their own control. Also an excommunication order (see Chapter 15) may be given in this phase.
D Ducat Expenditure PhaseThe judge takes ducats from the treasuries and executes the expenditure orders of the players. It is possible - for example - that some units change sides, due to succesful bribing.
The following sub-phases are carried out in the following sequence, each of them simultaneously for all players. The judge carries out only those orders which can be completely paid for, totally ignores the rest of the orders, and strictly adheres to the sequence between sub-phases D.1 - D.4, regardless of what the player may ordain. Within each sub-phase the judge carries out the orders in the sequence in which the player has given them.
D.1 Ducat Exchange PhaseThe judge transfers ducats between players as they have ordered.
D.2 Assassination Payment PhaseThe judge carries out assassination attempts and bodyguard recruitments (these act together like bribes and counter-bribes). The judge carries out Phase E for the victims of succesful assassinations, ignoring sub-phases D.3 and D.4 for them.
D.3 Rebellion PhaseThe judge rises and pacifies rebellions as ordered and paid for.
D.4 Bribe PhaseThe judge carries out bribing and counter-bribing as ordered and paid for.
E Assassination PhaseSee Chapter 10. No other phases are carried out for the victim of a succesful assassination. The military units of victims may however get retreated in conflicts.
F Order Execution and Conflict Resolution Phase
F.1 Action PhaseThe judge simultaneously carries out all orders given to military units. This may produce conflicts between them.
F.2 Retreat PhaseThe judge simultaneously carries out the resulting retreats.
3 Game StartThis scenario "Absence of Plague" is all new.
The game starts at Phase A.3 in Spring 1459. At the beginning there are only control markers and some independent garrisons on the gameboard. Each player has a starting treasury of 15 ducats. Players may exchange ducats, tax provinces by force and buy and sell them. No player may raise more than three military units in this first spring. Normal raising rules apply. For example, it is forbidden to raise two units into a single province.
Home countries are as follows, where U = unfortified city, F = fortified city, number = the class of a major city, and P = port city. Moreover, T = tax income in ducats from the controlled provinces and V = trade income in ducats for the country, although these incomes are not collected in the first spring.
Kingdom of France: Marseille (F2P), Lyon (F), Avignon (U), Ajaccio (UP). T: 9, V: 4.
Duchy of Savoy: Nizza (FP), Torino (F2), Savoia (U), Sassari (UP), Aosta. Also a control in Pontremoli. T: 11, V: 3.
Republic of Genoa: Genova (F3P), Ventimiglia (FP), Monferrato (F), Bastia (UP). T: 10, V: 4.
Holy Roman Empire (Austria): Steiermark (F2), Tirol (F), Trieste (FP), Kärnten, Krain. T: 9, V: 3.
Duchy of Milan: Milano (F3), Pavia (F), Cremona (F), Como, Fornova, Piacenza, Parma. T: 12, V: 3.
Republic of Venice: Venezia (F3P), Padova (F), Verona (F), Treviso (F), Bergamo, Brescia, Vicenza, Friuli. T: 15, V: 4 (note: the Lagoon produces 1d).
Duchy of Ferrara: Ferrara (F2P), Bologna (F2), Ravenna (F), Modena (F), Reggio. T: 11, V: 3.
Republic of Florence: Firenze (F3), Arezzo (F), Pisa (FP), Pistoia (F), Prato. T: 11, V: 4.
Papacy: Roma (F2), Perugia (F2), Urbino (F), Ancona (FP), Spoleto, Tivoli, Patrimonia. T: 13, V: 3.
Kingdom of Naples: Napoli (F2P), Salerno (F), Bari (FP), Aquila (U), Capua, Otranto. T: 11, V: 4.
Kingdom of Sicily: Palermo (F2P), Messina (FP), Siracusa (FP), Cagliari (UP), Pantelleria, Lipari. T: 11, V: 3.
Kingdom of Dalmatia: Zara (F2P), Spalato (F), Fiume (F), Istria, Croazia, Slavonia. V: 10, T: 4.
Turkey: Durazzo (F2P), Malta (FP), Albania (U), Bosnia (U), Herzegovina, Lampedusa. T: 11, V: 3.
There are independent garrisons in Saluzzo (F), Trento (F), Ungarn (F2), Mantova (F2), Massa (F), Lucca (F), Piombino (FP), Siena (F), San Marino (F), Kalabria (F), Tunis (F2P) and Ragusa (FP).
There are unfortified cities in Schweiz, Bolzano and Gabes.
4 The Existence of a State
4.1 Determining ControlA player controls a province and any city within, if a military unit of that player alone occupies or was the last to occupy the province, including the city. Control may also be obtained by buying an unoccupied province, which may contain an unoccupied city. In the following, "controlled" means that the control has been established by the player in question.
Military units establish the control immediately. They also point ou who controls the province. The control of unoccupied provinces should be marked with proper Control units. A rebellion takes the control away, but a Control unit is required to point out against whom a rebellion is directed.
If there is a garrison unit in a fortified city and a fleet unit or an army unit in the surrounding province, and they do not belong to the same player, then no one controls the city or the province. However the player owning the garrison receives the tax income from the city, and the player owning the army or fleet receives the tax income from the province.
No one controls a rebelling province and an ungarrisoned city within. A garrisoned city is controlled by the owner of the garrison unit even if the province is rebelling (but see the victory conditions, which require the full control of provinces).
A fleet unit establish the control in a sea area. No one controls an unoccupied sea area.
4.2 Victory conditionsThe play is winned at the end of a campaign season by controlling at least fifteen cities and their provinces, of which at least one belongs to the original home country of the winner. This limit drops to twelve cities beginning in the spring 1465.
Ranking factors in ties are 1. the number of controlled provinces, 2. tax income which would be currently collected, 3. the treasury in ducats. Some ties may remain, in which case the best ranking in each tied group is shared and the other rankings remain unassigned.
Players which have been eliminated from the game get the lowest rankings, based on the moment they got eliminated.
4.3 Getting eliminatedA player whose all home country cities are controlled by other players at the end of a campaign season is eliminated from the game. All of the units of that player are converted into independent ones. The treasury and control markers of the eliminated power are removed from the game.
4.4 Conquering a home countryThe home country of a player may be expanded by joining other home countries into it, that is, by establishing control in every province and city of another home country. This is checked at the end of a campaign season. If the conquering player loses his/her previous home country at the same time, then the conquered home country becomes his/her new home country.
A conquered home country gives same advantages as the original home country when collecting income, raising new units etc.
Although all the controlled home countries together form the current home country, the controlling player may lose them one by one, if they are conquered by other players.
5 Collecting income
5.1 Tax incomeA player receives ducats in Phase A.2 as follows:
One ducat for each controlled sea area (this income should really be called custom duties).
One ducat for each province, which is controlled or occupied by a military unit of the player, unless the province is in rebellion.
One ducat for each city, which is controlled or occupied by a garrison unit of that player, unless the city is under siege. Major cities produce not one ducat but the number of ducats indicated by the red number in the city symbol.
The island of Venice and the Lagoon are special cases, which are described in Chapter 14.
5.2 Trade incomeEach home country receives additional income from trade. This income (which is called variable income in standard rules) can be considered to include custom duties, earnings from banking business, sales of indulgences etc. A player receives this income for each controlled home country. Control of its every city is not required. Trade incomes are as follows:
France, Genoa, Venice, Florence, Naples, Dalmatia:
4 ducats each.
Major cities do not produce a separate trade income in this scenario.
5.3 Forced TaxationA player who controls a province may choose it to be taxed by force in Phase A.6. Tax income is received for the second time from each province taxed by force. However, major cities do not produce any surplus compared to other cities, and every province taxed by force starts rebelling immediately.
6 Trading ProvincesProvinces may be traded between players in Phase A.5. This is historically realistic; for example, Livorno was sold to Milan in 1399, then to Genoa in 1407 and then to Florence in 1421. A province may be sold by a player who controls it, if the province is unoccupied. The province has a minimum price which must be paid in the trading phase and which equals its tax income, for example, 3 ducats for Rome. Otherwise the price and terms of the trade may be set freely.
Both the seller and buyer lists this action for the judge. The provinces and prices, which are paid in this phase, should be listed and they must match. Otherwise - or if the buyer is not able to pay the price - the trading fails and no ducats are transferred.
If the trading takes place, the ducats are transferred and the control marker is changed immediately.
7 Military Unit Adjustment
7.1 Disbanding UnitsA player, who is not able or willing to pay for certain her/his old units, may disband them, in which case they are removed from the mapboard.
7.2 Raising New UnitsA player may raise new military units into controlled provinces, which belong into the current home country of that player and contain a city, either fortified or unfortified. New military units may not be placed in other provinces controlled by the player.
Only one new unit may be placed in each province. It may be placed in the province if another unit is already in the city, or in the city if another unit is already in the province, but new units may not be placed both in the city and in the province.
Only garrison units may be placed in cities, in which case they must be fortified. Armies must be placed in a province containing a city. Fleets may be placed only in provinces containing a port city.
It is not possible to both disband and raise a unit within the same province. For example, a player may not replace a garrison with an army in a province. However, sometimes it is clever to disband a unit in one province and place a new unit in another province, thus gaining an extra "move".
7.3 Paying for UnitsThe cost for each new and old unit is three ducats. If a player does not have ducats enough, the judge disbands units from the end of the list which the player has written and going backwards on it. If a player does not send any orders for military unit payment by deadline, the judge only charges the salary for existing units in the following order up to the limit of the player's treasury:
1. Garrison units
In case of ties - for example, if the player has two fleet units but ducats only enough for one of them - the judge chooses the maintained unit by the Area Preference List, see Appendix A.
The payment represents the salary for the whole year. No part of the salary is returned to the owner in any circumstances.
8 Orders in General
8.1 Expenditure OrdersDucats may be spent into assassinations, bribes and rebellions.
Assassination is directed against the leader of another major power. The player behind the leader may try to prevent a suspected assassination attempt by hiring a bodyguard.
A bribe is directed at an enemy unit. A counter-bribe may be directed at any unit in order to fend off a suspected bribe.
A rebellion is directed into an enemy-controlled province against that enemy. An ongoing rebellion may be pacified by an expenditure.
There are minimum costs for assassination, bodyguard hiring, bribing and counter-bribing. These amounts may be increased in units of three ducats. The costs for rising and pacifying a rebellion are fixed and there are no counter-measures for them.
Ducats may also be given to other players. Ducats thus received may be spent immediately, but no monetary transactions are disclosed even to the receiver until at the end of the Campaign season (or the beginning of Phase B; see Chapter 2).
The judge does not carry out contradictory, illegal, impossible or unclear expenditure orders, but orders which are nullified by another orders - bribes vs. counter-bribes, assassinations vs.bodyguards - are carried out. This means that the ducats are spent even if the order fails for this reason.
The judge does not charge any ducats for orders which cannot be fully paid for.
A player may order any number of expenditures (s)he can afford in a season.
The effects of expenditures could be described in full detail only by referring to the military operations. Hence, they are defined next.
8.2 Operation OrdersThe starting moment of military operations is right after carrying out the expenditures. Units may have disbanded or changed sides due to bribes, and the orders given to them by their original owners are ignored - in fact, not even disclosed by the judge.
A player may give one operation order to each of his/her units, even to the units (s)he tries to bribe into friendly ones.
The operating unit should always be identified in an operation order. Other participants - powers or units - should also be identified in some cases. A unit is identified by listing its type and location. The judge assumes a Hold order for a unit, if the order given to it is impossible to carry out for one reason or another.
9 The Possible Military Orders
9.1 Different OrdersThere are six different orders: Hold, Advance, Besiege, Support, Transport and Convert (Lift Siege and Disband orders, which are in the standard game, are excluded from this variant. Lift Siege may be replaced with Hold, and the Disband order is used extremely seldom if ever).
Each order is directed at a certain area - province or sea - but this target area must be identified only in Advance and Support orders (in addition to the location of the unit, which should always be identified).
A fleet unit may carry out all orders. An army unit may carry out all orders except Transport. A garrison unit may carry out Hold, Support and Convert orders.
Units may get into conflict with each other when carrying out orders given to them. These situations are described in Chapter 13.
9.2 HoldThis order tells the unit to stay in place. This is the default order, if the given order is lacking or impossible to carry out. For the sake of unity we say that a Hold order is directed at the location of the unit.
A holding unit is able to defend itself against an equally strong attacker, even several equally strong separate attackers. Moreover, a unit may put off a rebellion in a province by deliberately executing a hold order there.
9.3 AdvanceThis order may be given to a fleet or army unit. It tells the unit to advance into an adjacent province or sea area. The order is directed at this "target" area.
In its advance an army unit may also be transported between its starting and target locations over consecutive areas - sea areas or/and coastal provinces - if there is a fleet unit in each of those areas, and a fleet unit could legally try to advance from each of those areas into the next one in order.
Both the starting and target locations must be noted and the unit identified, plus every area through which a transportation would take place. The advance succeeds, if 1) the target area is not occupied by military units, or another military unit is succesfully advancing or converting out of it at the same time, 2) no other military unit is trying to advance or convert into that target area at the same time, and 3) if the advance is carried out by transport, no transporting fleet unit is forced to retreat.
If the advance does not succeed, the advancing unit executes a hold. This is the case also if the transport cannot be carried out.
If a fleet unit advances from a coastal province into another, the coastlines of these provinces must directly join into each other. For example, a fleet unit may not advance from Capua to Aquila.
There are some special features on the mapboard, of which Venice is discussed separately in Chapter 14.
The straits of Bonifacio and Messina: a fleet unit may directly advance from Ajaccio to Sassari, or Messina to Calabria, or vice versa.
Piombino: this province includes the island of Elba. Although the straits between Elba and mainland are part of the Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, a fleet unit which controls Piombino at the beginning of the Action Phase, controls also the straits. This means that the fleet may prohibit movement, support, transportation and direction of bribes through the straits. The owner of a fleet which controls the straits may grant his/her permission to carry out these activities. The permission should be announced to the judge with operation orders.
A fleet unit in Messina controls the straits of Messina in the same way.
A fleet unit in Calabria at the beginning of a Campaign is thought to be anywhere along the coastline of Calabria, but cannot still transport an army through the straits of Messina controlled by an enemy, unless granted a permission by that enemy.
9.4 BesiegeThis order tells an army or fleet unit to besiege a fortified city occupied by an enemy garrison unit in the province where the army or fleet unit is located. The order is directed at that province. If the siege succeeds, the garrison unit is destroyed and the city becomes controlled by the besieger. Also a rebellion is put down in a city by a succesful siege.
A fleet unit may besiege only a port city.
The besieging unit counter is put under the defending garrison unit counter to show that a siege is going on. The siege succeeds, if the besieging unit succesfully executes the siege order during two consecutive campaign seasons. Otherwise the siege fails and must be started all over again.
After the first of those seasons, either an another besiege order or a hold order may be given to the besieger. The siege fails in the latter case. No other orders may be given to the besieger in the second season, even if the besieger has changed sides by bribery. If they become friendly at each other by bribery, the besieger must execute a Hold order. Only if the defending garrison has been disbanded in the first season, the besieger is not required to execute a Hold order in an interrupted siege.
A besieged garrison may not be bribed.
9.5 SupportThis order tells the unit to give support to another military operation into a certain area. The support is given neither to a specific unit, nor to a specific operation; thus any supported unit or operation should not be noted in the order. The supported operation a) cannot be another supporting operation, and b) may be executed also in favour of another player, in which case that player should be noted. An operation may be supported by several different units and several different players.
The support is directed at an area into which the unit could legally try to advance (without transportation) or convert. The supporting unit does not move. It is not required that the supporting unit could itself execute the supported operation. For example, a fleet unit may support a besiege of a non-port coastal city.
9.6 TransportA fleet unit may transport an army unit. The order is directed at the location of the fleet unit. The player, whose army is to be transported, should be noted in the order - unless the army does not belong to the same player - but neither the starting nor the target area of the transported army. It may be transported only where the fleet unit could legally try to advance.
If the transport order cannot be carried out succesfully, the army unit must stay (hold) in its starting location.
9.7 ConvertThis order tells an army or fleet unit to convert itself into a garrison unit, or vice versa. The conversion may take place only in a province with a fortified city, which should also be a port city, if the conversion is ordered between a garrison unit and a fleet unit. In a succesful conversion the resulting unit is placed into a place it may legally occupy in the province.
A military unit may advance into a province where another military unit is succesfully converting into a garrison unit at the same time. A garrison unit may convert into a province, if a military unit is succesfully advancing out of it.
10 Assassination and BodyguardAn assassination order is directed against the leader of another major power. The victim - anticipating the attempt - may try to evade the assassination by hiring a bodyguard. It is also possible to hire a bodyguard for another leader.
There is a minimum price of 30 ducats for an assassination, and a minimum price of 3 ducats for a bodyguard. It is possible to pay more in increments of 3 ducats. The assassination succeeds, if the price paid for it is at least 30 ducats higher than the price paid for the bodyguard. The prices paid are in effect only for the current Campaign Season.
The player who represented an assassinated victim stays in the game as the successor of the victim, but rebellions arise in all of her/his conquered provinces (i.e. which are not part of her/his current home country). It is worth emphasizing that these rebellions support an enemy unit even in the Campaign Season in which the assassination took place. Moreover, all of the units of the victim automatically execute a hold order for that season. These holding units may be supported by other players, but they cannot put down any rebellions in that season (especially those which were put forth by the assassination). Afterwards they may be normally operated.
Several assassination attempts may be directed against the same leader at the same time. The highest-paid (or one of them) is carried out, but every attempt is charged for. The same applies to several bodyguards, which are hired for a single leader at the same time.
11.1 Starting a RebellionDucats may be expended to start a rebellion in an enemy-controlled, even in an enemy-occupied province. The rebellion is directed against that enemy, the "victim". A rebellion may not be started in a sea area or in a province which is not controlled by anyone, for example, if there is an army unit in the province and an independent garrison unit in the city within. There are no other regional prerequisites for starting a rebellion, for example, based on the location of military units.
The cost for starting a rebellion is fifteen ducats for a province which is part of a current home country, nine ducats for a conquered province, and three ducats for a province controlled by an independent military unit. The province should be noted in the expenditure order. The judge ignores anything which is said about the victim, because the victim is unambiguous.
Only one rebellion is possible in a province at a time. Only one will rise, even if several players are starting a rebellion in a province at the same time. All attempts to start a rebellion are however charged for. There is no counter-expenditure for fending off an anticipated rebellion.
When a rebellion is started, a rebellion unit is placed into the province. The rebellion unit never moves, nor may be ordered to operate. It may stay in the province indefinitely, pointing that the rebellion goes on and on. Also there should be at least a controlling marker in the province to point out the victim, although nobody controls a rebelling province. The different ways to finish a rebellion are described in Chapter 11.3.
A rebellion may be started on the islands of Venice, Lipari, Pantelleria and Lampedusa only if the island is unoccupied. This includes the city in case of Venice.
11.2 Effects of RebellionsNo one controls a rebelling province. A fortified city in a rebelling province is controlled by the victim and not in rebellion, if it is occupied by a garrison unit. Otherwise the city is in rebellion, too. An unfortified city is thought to be part of the province in rebellions.
Tax income cannot be collected from a rebelling province or city. A garrisoned city provides income.
New military units may not be raised into a rebelling province or city.
Any player other than the victim may use a rebellion unit for supporting an advance into the rebelling province. This support is automatic. For this purpose only, a rebellion unit has the strength of a military unit. However, if units of several players are trying to advance into the rebelling province at the same time, none may use that support.
A garrison unit may give support and convert into a rebelling province, but an army or fleet unit of the victim cannot neither give support while occupying a rebelling province, nor retreat into a rebelling province or city. Rebellion has no other effect on movement. (The victim is defined at the beginning of the Order execution and Conflict Resolution Phase.)
11.3 Stopping a RebellionA rebellion comes to an end and the rebellion unit is removed from the mapboard if the rebellion is pacified, liberated or put down, or if the victim is eliminated from the game.
An expenditure order may be given to pacify an ongoing rebellion. This order may be directed at any rebelling province, and it cannot be cancelled off by any other order. The costs is twelve ducats. Normally this order is given by the victim; if several players give it for a certain province at the same time, the rebellion is pacified and each pacifying order is charged for.
If only the province is rebelling, an army or fleet unit of the victim may put down the rebellion by succesfully executing one given Hold order in that province. A garrison unit cannot put down a rebellion.
If the province and a fortified city within are rebelling, the victim must besiege the city in the normal manner in order to put down the rebellion.
The rebellion is liberated, if a military unit not belonging to the victim advances into the rebelling province, or if a military unit in the rebelling province changes its owner by bribery.
12 Bribes and Counter-BribesA bribe is an expenditure, which is directed at an enemy unit. There are different bribe types and separate minimum prices for each of them. A succesful bribe cancels any military order originally given to the bribed unit. If the owner of the unit changes, the new owner may give another military order for the unit already in the same season. The judge does not disclose the original order.
A player may direct bribes only at units which are in her/his current home country, or directly adjacent to one of that player's military units, or directly adjacent to a unit of a third player, but in the last case only with the permission of that third player. Granting this permission is an order and should be announced to the judge with other orders. If the permission is not granted in this way, the bribe fails but is however charged for.
In order to be "adjacent" the units must be situated in neighbouring provinces or sea areas. Also a garrison unit and another military unit in the same province are considered adjacent, in which case the garrison unit is adjacent to no other unit. If there is a rebellion unit in the province, the garrison unit cannot be used in bribing other units, but it may be bribed by another military unit in a neighbouring province.
A counter-bribe is directed at any military unit - committed or independent, adjacent or distant - to nullify the suspected bribing of that unit, and it is effective against any type of bribes. The minimum price of a counter-bribe is three ducats.
The payment for a bribe or a counter-bribe may exceed the minimum price in units of three ducats. The bribing succeeds, if the exceeding portion of the bribe is not smaller than the highest counter-bribe paid to the same military unit (or one of the highest counter-bribes).
If several bribes are directed at the same military unit at the same time, only the largest bribe is checked against possibly counter-bribes; the others automatically fail. If there is a tie between bribes, only the one with the lowest minimum price is checked and the others fail. If there is a tie between the lowest minimum prices, all bribes fail unless the tied bribes are Disband bribes, in which case the unit is disbanded.
All payments for bribes and counter-bribes are expended, regardless of which bribes succeed and which fail.
Both the military unit and its location must be identified in bribing and counter-bribing. Of course, the type of a bribe should also be announced in bribing. The different types and respective minimum prices in ducats, given in parentheses, are as follows:
a) Bribes directed at independent units:Operate an independent unit (3): an independent unit may be ordered to operate by this bribe. An Advance order may not be given to an independent unit. If the bribe fails, the judge does not disclose the associated order.
Disband an independent unit (6): the unit is removed from the mapboard.
Buy an independent unit (9): the unit is converted into one of the units of the briber. The unit type (army/fleet/garrison) remains the same.
b) Bribes directed at committed units, i.e. the units of other players:Convert a committed unit (army/fleet/garrison) into an independent one (9). The unit type does not change.
Disband a committed unit (12).
Buy a committed unit (18). The unit type does not change.
The minimum price of a type b) bribe is doubled, if the unit to be bribed is a garrison unit occupying a major city.
13 Order Execution